The literature cited below sourced the information that has formed the basis of this website. I would also like to acknowledge the article entitled “The Challenges of Diving to Depth” written by G. L. Kooyman and P. J. Ponganis for the American Scientist in 1998, which has proved a helpful source.

I would also like to recommend Frances Ashcroft’s  “Life at the Extremes: The Science of Survival” (pictured below). Whilst not used directly as a source here, it was certainly the book which sparked my interest in diving physiology whilst I was still at secondary school.

Frances Ashcroft's excellent book "Life at the Extremes: The Science of Survival"

Literature Cited

Bagnis, R. (1968) Neurological accidents diving for the prairie oyster in the Tuamotu (about 45 cases of Taravana). Journal of Internal Medicine and Oceanography, 12, 123-139.

Butler, P. J., Jones, D. R., (1997) Physiology of Diving Mammals and Birds, Physiological Reviews, 77 (3), 837-899.

Butler, P. J., Woakes, A. J., (1976) Changes in heart rate and respiratory frequency associated with natural submersion of ducks. J. Physiol. Lond. 256: 73-74.

Cross E.R., (1965) Taravana – Diving Syndrome in the Tuamotu diver. In ‘Physiology of breath-hold diving and the ama of Japan.’ National Academy of Science – National Research Council Publication 1341, 207-219.

Eliassen, E. (1960) Cardiovascular responses to submersion asphyxia in avian divers. Arbolc Univ. Bergen Mat. Naturvitensk. Ser. 2,  l-76.

Elliott, N. M., Andrews, R. D., Jones, D. R., (2002) Pharmacological blockade of the dive response: effects on heart rate and diving behaviour in the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). The Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 3757–3765.

Fahlman A., Olszowka A., Bostrom, B, Jones, D. R., (2006) Deep diving mammals: Dive behaviour and circulatory adjustments contribute to bends avoidance, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 153 (1), 66-77

Jepson, P. D. , Arbelo, M., Deaville, R., Patterson, I. A. P., Castro, P., Baker, J. R., Degollada, E., Ross, H. M., Herráez, P., Pocknell, A. M., Rodríguez, F., Howie, F. E. , Espinosa, A., Reid, R. J. , Jaber, J. R., Martin, V., Cunningham, A. A. , Fernández, A. (2003) Gas-bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans, Nature, 425, 575-576.

Kanatous, Shane B., Robert Elsner, and Odile Mathieu-Costello. (2001) Muscle capillary supply in harbour seals. The Journal of Applied Physiology. 90 (5), 1919-1926

Kooyman, G. L. and W. B. Campbell. (1972). Heart rates in freely diving weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddelli. Comparative Biochem. Physiology. 43, 31-36

Kooyman G. L., (1973) Respiratory adaptations in marine mammals. Am. Zool. 13, 457–468.

Kooyman, G. L., Ponganis, P. J. , (1998). The physiological basis of diving to depth: birds and mammals. Annual Review Physiology, 60, 19-32.

Kooyman, G. L., Ponganis, P. J. , (1998). The Challenges of Diving to Depth, American Scientist, 85 (6), 530-539.

Kooyman, G. L., Sinnett, E. E., (1981). Pulmonary shunts in harbor seals and sea lions during simulated dives to depth. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 55 (1), 105-111.

Kooyman, G.L., Wahrenbrock, E. A. , Castellini, M.A. , Davis, R. W., Sinnett, E. E. , (1980). Aerobic and Anearobic Metabolism During Voluntary Diving in Weddell Seals: Evidence of Preferred Pathways from Blood Chemistry and Behavior. The Journal of Comparative Physiology. 138 (4), 335-346

Lapennas, G. N. (1983). The magnitude of the Bohr coefficient: optimal for oxygen delivery. Respir. Physiol. 54,  161-172.

Millard, R. W., Johansen, K., Milsom, W. K.. (1973) Radiotelemetry of cardiovascular responses to exercise and diving in penguins. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Physiol. 46, 227-240.

Ponganis, P.J., G. L. Kooyman, D. Sartoris, and P. Jobsis. (1992) Pinniped splenic volmes. American Journal of Physiology. 262(2): R322-R325

Reed, J. Z., Chambers, C., Fedak, M. A., Butler, P. J. (1994) Gas exchange of captive freely diving grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 191, 1-18.

Thompson, David and Michael A. Fedak. (1993) Cardiac response of grey seals during diving at sea. Journal of Experimental Biology. 174: 139-164.

Thornton, S.J., D.S. Spielman, N.J. Pelc, W. F. Block, D.E. Crocker, D. P. Costa, B.J. LeBoeuf and P.W. Hochachka. (2001) Effects of forced diving on the spleen and hepatic sinus in northern elephant seal pups. PNAS. 98 (16): 9413-9418.

Wickham, L. L., Elsner R., White, F. C., Cornell, L. H., (1989) Blood viscosity in phocid seals: possible adaptations to diving. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 159 (2), 153-158.

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